The Sumerians are known in world history as being the first civilization dating back to around 3000 B.C. They excelled in many areas for a civilization of that time. Furthermore, they established the basics for socio-economics and intellect in the area known as present-day
nestled in-between the Tigris and . Many breakthroughs and inventions assisted in
the foundations of the Sumerian society which lasted for approximately 1000
Their society was headed by a king and divided into four sets of classes: nobles, clients, commoners, and slaves, which all contributed in some way to their flourishing culture. The Sumerians were heavily involved in trade, whether it was with other nearby civilizations or in the
Persian Gulf. Within their own city-states, citizens were
involved in various types of trades, such as masonry, metalworking, and pottery
to contribute to the culture within, and trade with foreign entities outward. Agriculture was a necessity and therefore led
to an intensive system of irrigation being created by digging canals from the
major rivers. This lead to rich land for
Moreover, the Sumerians established a system of writing which was depicted in several forms: pictographs, ideograms, and phonetic signs. This system of writing bridged the gap between Sumerian city-states and their following generations. Mathematics, specifically geometry and trigonometry, played a huge role in assisting the Sumerians in erecting structures, such as palaces, temples, ziggurats, canals, et cetera. Lastly, the Sumerians also used a system of medicine to rid citizens of sickness (or rid them of evil spirits). Several different treatments were used to help cure the sick and these treatments consisted of magic, surgery, and prescriptions, or even a combination of all three.
All of the aforementioned reasons laid the groundwork for a flourishing civilization in
Mesopotamia. Their influence and culture followed onto
other civilizations that conquered in the same geographical region such as the
Semites and the Babylonians. Ultimately,
Sumerian culture helped form political and economic stability in the civilized
world for the following civilizations to come.